‘Apocalyptic’ food prices will be disastrous for world’s poor, says Bank governor
-Bank of England’s Andrew Bailey blames UK’s highest inflation rate for three decades on Russia-Ukraine war and Covid

銀行行長說,“世界末日”級食品價格對世界貧困人口將是災難性的
——英格蘭銀行的安德魯·貝利將英國30年來最高的通脹率歸咎于俄烏戰爭和疫情


(Local government officials and Ukrainian soldiers inspect a grain warehouse shelled by Russian forces in Novovorontsovka this month.)

(當地政府官員和烏克蘭士兵檢查本月俄羅斯軍隊在新沃龍佐夫卡炮擊的一個糧倉。)
新聞:

The Bank of England governor has blamed the war in Ukraine for the highest inflation in the UK for three decades and warned that “apocalyptic” food prices caused by Russia’s invasion could have a disastrous impact on the world’s poor.

這位英國央行行長將英國30年來最高的通脹歸咎于烏克蘭戰爭,并警告稱,俄羅斯入侵造成的“災難性”食品價格,可能對全球窮人產生災難性影響。

Defending Threadneedle Street before an announcement on Wednesday of the sharpest annual increase in four decades, Andrew Bailey told MPs that while he was unhappy about the level of price rises, 80% of the inflation target overshoot was caused by factors outside the Bank’s control.

在周三宣布四十年來最急劇的年度漲價之前,安德魯·貝利為針線街辯護,他告訴議員們,盡管他對價格上漲的水平感到不滿,但80%的通脹目標超出是由銀行無法控制的因素造成的。

Bailey said the Bank could not have been expected to predict a war in Ukraine, which he warned would have consequences for the UK and the developing world.

貝利表示,人們不可能指望世行預測出烏克蘭的戰爭,他警告稱,烏克蘭戰爭將對英國和發展中國家產生影響。

Countries such as Egypt and Tunisia rely heavily on exports of Ukraine’s wheat and cooking oil, and the governor said his concerns about food supplies had been heightened after speaking to Kyiv’s finance minister at last month’s IMF meeting in Washington.

埃及和突尼斯等國嚴重依賴烏克蘭的小麥和食用油出口。烏克蘭央行行長表示,上月在華盛頓舉行的國際貨幣基金組織會議上與基輔財政部長交談后,他對糧食供應的擔憂加劇了。

“He said he was optimistic about crop planting, but at the moment there was no way of shipping the food out, and it’s getting worse,” Bailey said. “That’s not just a major worry for this country, but a worry for the developing world. I’m sorry for being apocalyptic, but it is a worry.”

貝利說:“他說他對農作物耕種很樂觀,但目前沒有辦法把食物運出去,情況越來越糟。這不僅是這個國家的主要擔憂,也是發展中國家的擔憂。我很抱歉我提到了世界末日,但這確實令人擔憂。”

Amid growing concern about Britain’s cost-of-living crisis, the head of the CBI, Tony Danker, called on the chancellor, Rishi Sunak, to offer immediate help to those struggling to feed themselves at a time of rising food and energy prices. The director-general of the employers’ organisation said there was a “moral imperative” on the government to act.

在人們對英國生活成本危機日益擔憂之際,英國工業聯合會主席托尼·丹克呼吁財政大臣里希·蘇納克立即向那些在食品和能源價格上漲之際難以養活自己的人提供幫助。該雇主組織的總干事表示,政府采取行動是“道義上的責任”。

Official figures due out on Wednesday are expected to show the annual inflation rate climbing above 9%, with the Bank of England expecting the figure to climb above 10% when the energy price cap is raised further in October.

定于周三發布的官方數據預計將顯示,年通脹率將攀升至9%以上。英格蘭銀行預計,當10月份能源價格上限進一步上調時,通脹率將攀升至10%以上。

Asked if the Bank could have prevented inflation from soaring by raising interest rates sooner, Bailey told the Treasury sext committee: “I don’t think we could. I don’t think we could foresee a war in Ukraine.

當被問及銀行是否本可以通過提前提高利率來阻止通貨膨脹時,貝利告訴財政部特別委員會:“我認為我們做不到。我認為我們無法預見烏克蘭會發生戰爭。

“Another factor that we’re dealing with at the moment is a further leg of Covid, which is affecting China. We have seen a series of supply shocks coming one after another, and that’s unprecedented.”

“我們目前正在應對的另一個因素是新冠肺炎的進一步蔓延,它正在影響中國。我們已經看到一系列供應沖擊接踵而至,這是前所未有的。”

The Bank’s nine-strong monetary policy committee has raised interest rates at its last four meetings after it doubled its forecast for the peak in inflation this year from 5% to 10%.

英國央行貨幣政策委員會的九名成員已經在過去的四次會議上提高了利率,此前他們將今年的通脹峰值預期從5%提高到了10%。

“I don’t feel at all happy and it’s a bad situation to be in,” the governor said after MPs asked him to explain why the Bank had waited until December before acting.

“我一點也不高興,現在的情況很糟糕,”這位行長表示。此前,議員們要求他解釋為何英國央行一直等到12月才采取行動。

In the wake of reports at the weekend that unnamed cabinet ministers had questioned whether the Bank should remain independent, Bailey said: “This is the biggest test of the monetary policy frxwork in 25 years. There is no question about that.”

上周末有報道稱,不愿透露姓名的內閣大臣們質疑英國央行是否應該保持獨立性。隨后,貝利表示:“這是25年來對貨幣政策框架的最大考驗。這是毫無疑問的。”

The governor reiterated the call for pay restraint that he made in February, urging the best-paid to set an example to workers earning less.

這位行長重申了他在2月份提出的限制工資上漲的呼吁,敦促收入最高的工人為收入較低的工人樹立榜樣。

“I do think people, particularly people who are on higher earnings, should think and reflect on asking for high wage increases,” he said. “It’s a societal question. But I am not preaching about this. It’s not for me to go around telling people what to do.

他說:“我確實認為人們,特別是那些收入較高的人,應該對提高工資的訴求進行思考和反思。這是一個社會問題。但我不是在宣揚這個。我沒資格到處告訴別人該怎么做。

“In that sense, I know I may have been interpreted as doing that, but I wasn’t. What I was saying is that maybe people should reflect on it, particularly people in that situation.”

“從這個意義上說,我知道我可能會被理解為這樣做,但我沒有。我想說的是,也許人們應該反思一下,尤其是處于那種情況下的人。”

Paul Nowak, deputy general secretary of the Trades unx Congress, said: “It is unbelievable that the Bank of England has repeated its calls for workers to take a wage hit – while saying virtually nothing about soaring profits at the likes of BP and Shell. The last thing working people need right now – in the middle of the worst living standards crisis in generations – is to have their wages held down.”

英國工會大會副秘書長保羅·諾瓦克表示:“令人難以置信的是,英國央行一再呼吁工人削減工資,卻幾乎沒有提到英國石油和殼牌等公司利潤飆升的問題。在幾代人以來最糟糕的生活水平危機中,員工們現在最不需要的就是工資被壓低。”

Asked about the future dangers to the cost of living, Bailey said there could be prolonged supply-chain bottlenecks as a result of disruption in China or higher energy prices if Russia decided to cut off gas supplies.

在被問及未來生活成本面臨的危險時,貝利表示,中國的供應中斷可能會導致供應鏈瓶頸延長,如果俄羅斯決定切斷天然氣供應,能源價格可能會上漲。
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However, he said the Bank could not have been expected to foresee recent events. “I do see comments based on hindsight, but we have to take [monetary policy] decisions based on the facts and evidence at the time.”

不過,他表示,不可能指望英國央行預測近期的事件。“我確實看到了基于事后諸葛亮的評論,但我們必須根據當時的事實和證據做出(貨幣政策)決定。”

His comments followed an announcement by Great Britain’s energy regulator, Ofgem, that it was planning to make changes to its price cap four times a year, as opposed to twice at present.

在此之前,英國能源監管機構天然氣與電力市場辦公室宣布,計劃每年對價格上限進行四次調整,而不是目前的兩次。

The regulator on Monday published a consultation on proposals to introduce new reviews of the price cap in January and July, adding to existing changes in April and October, in an attempt to respond more quickly to volatile markets.

監管機構周一發布了一份征求意見稿,建議在今年1月和7月對限價上限進行新的審查,此前已在4月和10月對限價上限進行了修改,以更快地應對市場波動。

Meanwhile, the RAC revealed that the average price of diesel at forecourts had hit a record of just over £1.80 a litre, with experts warning of further rises if EU plans to ban Russian oil imports go ahead.

與此同時,英國皇家汽車俱樂部透露,前院柴油的平均價格達到了每升略高于1.8英鎊的創紀錄水平,專家警告稱,如果歐盟禁止進口俄羅斯石油的計劃繼續實施,柴油價格還將進一步上漲。